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API Bull E2:2006 pdf download

API Bull E2:2006 pdf download.Bulletin on Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Oil and Gas Production.
This section summarizes general methods for removal of scale, sludge, and film from oil and gas production equipment and tubing. NORM-impacted gas plant equipment is also discussed. Rcmoval operations should be carried out in a safe and practical manner to prevent any harm to workers or the environment. Removal operations range from manual cleaning to high-pressLire water blasting of production equipmcnt. NORM removal is often performed by a third party. typically a contractor specializing in and specifically licensed for this type of work. The cleaning and removal operations may be carried out at the equipment location or at the contractor’s facility. Scale removal contractors will normally return NORM-impacted scale to the operator for disposal.
A key factor in selecting a NORM removal procedure is the availability of adequate resources. Cleaning facilities, removal equipment. protective clothing, and safety equipment should he included in a resource evaluation.
Particular emphasis should be placed on waste handling Ihcilities. Adequate waste handling facilities are necessary to prevetn the spread of NORM material to the surrounding environment, which may significantly add to the cost of a removal operation.
En some states, contractors may be required to have adequate facilities and to be licensed by state regulatory agencies to perform NORM removal. However, it is prudent to perform an external assessment of facilities and, where warranted. radionuclidc analyses of vessel contents before engaging any third party services, lithe facility has a radioactive materials license, a review of the current status of’ that license and any deficiencies tiled against the license is also recommended.
In general, NORM removal at dedicated facilities is more efficient, but tank, and some equipment cleaning, must be done on site. Before any type of NORM-removal operations is begun, certain precautions should be taken. Owners or operators of equipment or facilities directly performing their own cleaning should follow the following procedures. These procedures can also serve as a guide for evaluating the resources of third-party contractors performing such work. State regulators should be consulted to ascertain the eligibility of contractors to perform the required work. State regulators will also provide information regarding acceptable levels for direct radiation or activity levels that are appropriate for the operation to be performed.
Employees involved in NORM-removal operations should be properly trained. Records of training should be maintained as required by applicable state and federal regulations.
a. Equipment should be treated as being NORM impacted if external radiation levels exceed direct radiation levels specified by the state,
b. Permanent cleaning areas should be paved and curbed with concrete to avoid ground contamination. Plastic ground covers should he placed in and around a temporary NORM cleaning area before any cleaning operation begins. Plastic ground covers are used to contain contaminants and facilitate clean-up procedures after operations are complete.
c. Any type of NORM-removal activity should take place in a well-ventilated area.
d. All personnel involved in the removal process should be familiar with personal protective equipment that should be worn during removal operations. Personnel should also be familiar with proper procedures for confined space entry.
e. Personnel radiation exposures associated with NORM removal should be evaluated as described Sections 3,1.5 and 3.1.6 when exposure and concentration levels approach regulated values.
f. Entry into the cleaning area should be restricted to authorized personnel, and the tiumber of people within the cleaning area should be kept to a minimum.
g. Workers should keep all materials that contain NORM in a wet state to prevent the inhalation of (lust, Dry removal processes must be designed to prevent dust releases.
h. Radiation survey readings should be taken in and around the cleaning area before the cleaning operations begin. Initial readings should be compared to readings taken after cleaning operations are complete.
i. The removed scale, sludge, and other particles should be placed in appropriate containers for storage. All NORM-impacted process water should be contained, recirculated, or filtered to remove NORM material.


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