Home>API>API Publ 4758:2006 pdf download

API Publ 4758:2006 pdf download

API Publ 4758:2006 pdf download.Strategies for Addressing Salt Impacts of Produced Water Releases to Plants, Soil, and Groundwater.
140w Salt Can At? ed Plants
Water present within the soil pores is subect to several forces related to: i) the sad solid phase: ii) the dissolved salts; and ii) the
gravitational field. Plants work against the capillary lensaon of water within the soil pores in order to draw in waler. An increase in the
TOS of the soil pore water increases the osmotic effect, therety increasing the force a plant must exert to extract water from the soil.
This can cause plants to go into drought stress even though a substantial amount ol water may still be presenl in the soil.
Plants are more sensitive to salinity dising gemlinaflon than in Later stages of growth. Sprigging, sodding, or transplanting of plant materials is a way to avoid (tie sensitivity of the seedling stage.
Symptoms of Plant Stress Caused by Salt
Excessive soil salinity can result in barren spots, stunted vegetative growth with considerable variety in size, and a deep blue-green foliage fLJSDA. 1954). Plants that are stunted due to low fertility are usually yedow-green, white those stunted due to elevated salinity are characteristically blue green. The bluish appearance is the result of an unusually heavy waxy coating on the surface of the leaves, and the darker color Is due to increased chlorophyll contenL Some plants may develop dead areas or tlpburn or exhibit cupping or rolbng of the leaves
1) To assess the Importance of Chloride Mass Loading. 256 simulations were run with the Chloride Mass Loading set at tow”, and all High/Low combinations of the other eight factors. The average increase in chloride concentration to shallow groundwater was calculaled to be 89 rng/L (see diagram to the right).
2) An additional 256 simulations were run where the ‘High” Chloride Mass Loading was used, resulting in an average chloride concentration increase in the shallow groundwater of 8357 mg/L,
3) Subtracting out the average of the low runs from the average of the “High runs gave a difference of (8357-89) = 8268 mg/L.
When this same approach was used for the Groundwater Depth factor, the difference between the “Low” and “High runs was only 1827 mgfL compared to 8268 mg/L for Chloride Mass Loading. Therefore Chloride Mass Loading is likely to have a greater effect than Groundwater Depth on chloride concentration in shallow groundwater.
This type of sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate key factors for:
• C,, the increase in chloride concentration in shallow groundwater: and
• TmaK, the time to reach the maximum increase in chloride concentration in shallow groundwater.
Results of the sensitivity analysis are shown in the bar charts to the right. Note the values shown on the Y axis (C, or increase in chloride concentration in shallow groundwater. and T., average time to reach C, concentration in groundwater) are only meaningful in a relative sense (to compare factors). The absolute value (such as 8268 mgI for Chloride Mass Loading) does not correspond to an expected value for actual site conditions.


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