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API RP 574:2009 pdf download

API RP 574:2009 pdf download.Inspection Practices for Piping System Components. All FRP piping should be inspected by a person that is knowledgeable in the curing, fabrication and quality of FRP materials. The level of inspection should be determined by the user. ASME RTP-1, Table 6-1, can be used as a guide to identify liner and structure imperfections that are common in FRP laminates. Standardized FRP piping systems commonly called ‘4commodity piping” are manufactured for a variety of services and are sold as products with a predetermined design, resin, corrosion barrier and structure. The piping manufacturers typically have a quality control specification that identifies the level of quality and allowable tolerance that is built into their product. Custom fabricated pipe is typically designed and manufactured for a specific application. The resin, catalyst system, corrosion barrier and structure are specified and the pipe is manufactured to a specification and to a specified level of quality and tolerances. The FRP inspector should verify by documentation and inspection that the piping system has been built with the proper materials, quality, hardness and thickness as requested in the pipe specification. A final inspection should be performed at the job site to insure that the pipe has not experienced any mechanical damage during shipment.
4.1.3 Small-bore Piping (SBP)
SBP can be used as primary process piping or as nipples, secondary, and auxiliary piping. Nipples are normally 6 in. (152 mm) or less in length and are most often used in vents at piping high points and drains at piping low points and used to connect secondary/auxiliary piping. Secondary piping is normally isolated from the main process lines by closed valves and can be used for such functions as sample taps. Auxiliary piping is normally open to service and used for flush lines, instrument piping, analyzer piping, lubrication, and seal oil piping for rotating equipment.
4.1.4 Linings
Internal linings can be incorporated into piping design to reduce corrosion, erosion, product contamination, and pipe metal temperatures. The linings can generally be characterized as metallic and nonmetallic. Metallic liners are installed in various ways, such as cladding, weld overlay, and strip lining. Clad pipe has a metallic liner that is an integral part of the plate material rolled or explosion bonded before fabrication of the pipe. They may instead be separate strips of metal fastened to the pipe by welding referred to strip lining. Corrosion-resistant metal can also be applied to the pipe surfaces by various weld overlay processes. Metallic liners can be made of any metal resistant to the corrosive or erosive environment depending upon its purpose. These include stainless steels, high alloys, cobalt-based alloys, for example.
Nonmetallic liners can be used to resist corrosion and erosion or to insulate and reduce the temperature on the pipe wall. Some common nonmetallic lining materials for piping are concrete, castable refractory, plastic, and thin-film coatings.
4.2 Tubing
With the exception of heater, boiler, and exchanger tubes, tubing is similar to piping, but is manufactured in many ODs and wall thicknesses. Tubing is generally seamless, but can be welded. Its stated size is the actual CD rather than NPS. [ASTM B88 tubing, which is often used for steam tracing, is an exception in that its size designation is 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) less than the actual CD.] Tubing is usually made in small diameters and is mainly used for heat exchangers, instrument piping, lubricating oil services, steam tracing, and similar services.
A gate valve consists of a body that contains a gate that interrupts flow.This type of valve is normally used in a fullyopen or fully closed position.Gate valves larger than 2 in.(51 mm) usually have port openings that are approximatelythe same size as the valve end openings which is called a full-ported valve.Figure 1 shows a cross section of a ful-ported wedge gate valve.
Reduced port gate valves have port openings that are smaller than the end openings. Reduced port valves should notbe used as block valves associated with pressure relief devices or in erosive applications, such as slurries, or linesthat are to be “pigged.”
4.3.3 Globe Valves
A globe valve, which is commonly used to regulate fluid flow, consists of a valve body that contains a circular disc thatmoves parallel to the disc axis and contacts the seat. The stream flows upward generally, except for vacuum serviceor when required by system design (e.g. fail closed), through the seat area against the disc,and then changesdirection to flow through the body to the outlet disc.The seating surface can be flat or tapered.For fine-throttlingservice, a very steep tapered seat can be used; this particular type of globe valve is referred to as a needle valve.Aglobe valve is commonly constructed with its inlet and outlet in line and with its port opening at right angles to the inletand outlet. Figure 2 illustrates a cross section of a globe valve.


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