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API St 2000:2014 pdf download

API St 2000:2014 pdf download.Venting Atmospheric and Low-pressure Storage Tanks.
a) larger or additional open vents as limited by,
b) larger or add ibonal PV valves,
C) a gauge hatch that permits the cover to bft under abnormal internal pressure,
d) a manhole cover that lifts when exposed to abnormal internal pressure,
e) weak (frangible) roof-to-shell attachment (see,
f) a rupture-disk device,
g) other forms of construction that can be proven to be comparable for the purposes of pressure relief.
3.5 Considerations for Tanks with Potentially Flammable Atmospheres
3.5.1 General
Depending on the process, operating conditions, andlor relieving conditions, the vapor space in the tank can be flammable. Ignition of the vapor space while within the flammable region likely leads to tank roof damage and/or loss of containment. Ignition sources include, but are not limited to, static discharge inside the tank due to splash filling or improper level gauging, pyrophoric materials on the inside surfaces of the tank. external hot work on the tank, tank or tank fittings above the auto-ignition temperature due to external fire exposure, or flame propagation through a tank opening or vent caused by a lightning strike or external fire. Consider the potential for a flammable atmosphere Inside the tank and determine whether safeguards are adequate.
If exploslon/deflagration venting Is necessary, see
3.5.2 Design Options for Explosion Prevention
If the tanks vapor space can be within the flammable range, the user shall determine what safeguards are required to prevent internal deflagration. The following are typical safeguards.
a) Different Tank Selection—A different type of tank design can reduce or eliminate the formation of a flammable atmosphere.
EXAMPLES floating-roof tank or a tank rated for full vacuum.
b) lne,t.gas Blanketing—An effective means of reducing the likelihood of a flammable atmosphere inside a tank, when engineered and maintained property. Note that inerting can introduce an asphyxiation risk and in sour services can promote the formation of pyrophoric deposits.
C) Flame Arrester—The use of this in an open vent line or on the inlet to the pressure/vacuum valve is an effective method to reduce the nsk of flame transmission The user is cautioned that a sustained fire on the outlet of the flame arrester not designed for endurance burning or on other parts of the tank/fittings may result in temperatures high enough to ignite internal flammable vapors. The use of high temperature alarms on flame arresters can provide warning of flame contact. In addition the use of a flame arrester within the tanks relief path introduces the risk of tank damage from overpressure or vacuum due to plugging if the arrester is not maintained property. The use of a flame arrester increases the pressure drop of the venting system. The manufacturer(s) should be consulted for assessing the magnitude of these effects. More information on flame arresters can be found in ISO 16852 NFPA 69”°’, TRbF FM 6061 , and USCG 33 CFR 154.
For the proper selection of a flame arrester, the piping configuration. operating pressure and temperature. oxygen concentration, compatibility of flame arrester matenal. and explosive gas group (IlA, llB. etc.) should be considered. For selection of the correct flame arrester, the manufacturer shodd be consulted,
d) PessweNacuurn VaJve—The petroleum Industry has had good experience with tanks protected by pressure and vacuum vents without flame arresters, As a result, there has been a belief that this good expenence Is due to the pressure vents potentially inherent flame-arresting capabilities. Recent testing. however, disproves this hypothesis at least for the tested conditions. See 3.54 for more inforniation on flame propagation through pressure vents.
3.5.3 Inert-gas-blanketed Tanks
An inert-gas system may be used to avoid drawing air into the tank during vacuum conditions. The use of inert-gas systems instead of a vacuum-relief device is beyond the scope of this standard, For tanks that use an inert-gas supply system, the lIkelood of a potentially explosive atmosphere is reduced and there can be benefits related to a less severe hazardous area classification. See Annex F for a discussion of other benefits and for informative guidance for inert-gas blanketing of tanks for flashback protection. The venting devices shall be sized for the case where the inert gas is unavailable (see 331).


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