Home>API>API STD 2000:2014 pdf download

API STD 2000:2014 pdf download

API STD 2000:2014 pdf download.Venting Atmospheric and Low-pressure Storage Tanks. The total rate of venting determined from Table 7 or Table 8 may be multiplied by an appropriate environmental factor. F, selected from Table 9; credit may be taken for only one environmental factor. Credit may be taken for the venting capacity provided by the device installed for normal venting, since the normal thermal effect can be disregarded during a fire. Also, it can be assumed that there is no liquid movement into the tank during fire exposure. If normal venting devices have inadequate capacity, additional emergency venting devices of Itie typo doscflbod In 3.4.2 shall be provided so that the total venting capacity Is at least equivalent to that required by Table 5 or Table 6 or by Equation (14) or Equation (15). The total venting capacity shall be based on the pressure indicated in 3.6.2.
3.4 Means of Venting
3.4.1 Normal Venting
3.4.li General
Normal venting for pressure and vacuum shall be accomplished by a PV valve with or without a flame- arresting device or by an open vent with or without a flame-arresting device.
Protect atmosphenc storage tanks against flame transmission from outside the tank if
the stored liquid has a low flash point, i.e. less than 60 ‘C (140 F) or in accordance with the applicable regulations, whichever is higher; or
— the storage temperature can exceed the flash point; or
— the tank can otherwise contain a flammable vapor space,
See 3.5 for design considerations for tanks that have potentially flammable atmospheres. A discussion of the types and operating charactenstics of ventiog devices can be found in Annex C.
Relief devices equipped with a weight-lever mechanism for adjusting the set pressure, and nonreclosing relief devices are not recommended for normal venting. Pr.ssureNacuum Valves
To avoid product loss, PV valves are recommended for use on atmospheric storage tanks. Open Vents
If open vents are selected to provide venting capacity for tanks that can contain a flammable vapor space as defined in a flame-arresting device should be used. Open vents without a flame-arresting device may be used for tanks that do not contain a flammable vapor space,
In the case of viscous oils, such as cutback and penetration-grade asphalts. where the danger of tank collapse resulting from sticking pallets or from plugging of flame arresters is greater than the possibility of flame transmission into the tank, open vents may be used as an exception to the requirements of; or heat traced vents that ensure that the vapor temperature slays above the dew point may be used.
In areas with strict fugitive emissions regulations, open vents might not be acceptable and vent-device selection should consider the maximum leakage requirements during periods of normal tank operation.
3.4.2 Emergency Venting
Emergency venting may be accomplished by the use of the following:
3.5 ConsIderations for Tanks with Potentially Flammable Atmospheres
3.5.1 General
Depending on the process, operating conditions, and/or relieving conditions, the vapor space in the tank can be flammable. Ignition of the vapor space while within the flammable region likely leads to tank roof damage and/or ioss of containment. Ignition sources Include, but are not limited to, static discharge inside the tank due to splash filling or improper level gauging, pyrophonc materials on the inside surfaces of the tank. external hot work on the tank, tank or tank fittings above the auto-ignition temperature due to external fire exposure, or flame propagation through a tank opening or vent caused by a lightning strike or external fire Consider the potential for a flammable atmosphere inside the tank and determine whether safeguards are adequate.
if explosion/deflagratlon venting Is necessary. see 32.5.15.
3.5.2 Design Options for Explosion Prevention
If the tank’s vapor space can be withei the flammable range, the user shall determine wtiat safeguards are required to prevent internal deflagratiori. The following are typical safeguards.
a) O.fferent Tank Selection—A different type or tank design can reduce or eliminate the formation of a flammable atmosphere,
EXAMPLES Floating-roof taik or a tank ratnd for full vacuum.
b) Inert-gas BJanketing—An effective means of reducing the likelihood of a flammable atmosphere inside a tank, when engineered and maintained properly. Note that inerting can introduce an asphyxiation risk and in sour services can promote the formation of pyrophoric deposits,
c) Flame Asrester—The use of this in an open vent line or on the inlet to the pressure/vacuum valve is an effective method to reduce the risk of flame transmission. The user is cautioned that a sustained fire on the outlet of the flame arrester not designed for endurance burning or on other parts of the tank/fittings may result m temperatures high enough to Ignite Internal flammable vapors. The use of high temperature alarms on flame arresters can provide warning of flame contact. In addition the use of a flame arrester within the tank’s relief path introduces the risk of tank damage from overpressuro or vacuum due to plugging if the arrester is not maintained property. The use of a flame arrester increases the pressure drop of the venting system. The manufacturer(s) should be consulted for assessing the magnitude of these effects. More inforniabon on flame arresters can be found in ISO 16852 1h1, NFPA 69, TRbF 20”, FM 6061 , and USCG 33 CFR 1541191.


Template Categories
Popular Tags